THE DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY
Clinical psychology integrates science, theory, and practice in order to understand, predict and relieve maladjustment, disability, and discomfort. Clinical psychology also promotes adaption, adjustment and personal development.
Cognitive psychology investigates internal mental processes, such as problem solving, memory, learning, and language.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes that a person experiences over the course of his/her life span
Evolutionary psychology looks at how human behavior has been affected by psychological adjustments during evolution.
Forensic psychology involves applying psychology to criminal investigation and the law. A forensic psychologist practices psychology as a science within the criminal justice system and civil courts.
Health psychology is also called behavioral medicine or medical psychology. This branch observes how behavior, biology and social context influence illness and health.
Neuropsychology Studies the structure and function of the brain in relation to clear behaviors and psychological processes.
Occupational psychology studies the performance of people at work and in training, develops an understanding of how organizations function and how people and groups behave at work. The occupational psychologist aims to increase effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction at work.
Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand and explain how feeling, behavior and thoughts of people are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other people.
A branch of psychology that studies children in an educational setting and is concerned with teaching and learning methods, cognitive development, and aptitude assessment.
Education is an attempt to mould and shape the behavior of the pupil. It aims to produce desirable changes in him for the all-round development of his personality. How does Educational Psychology contribute to it? Educational Psychology supplies the essential knowledge and skill to do this job satisfactorily.
According to E.A. Peel, “Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand the development of his pupils, the range and limits of their capacities, the processes by which they learn and their social relationships.”
Thus, Educational Psychology concerned primarily with understanding the processes of teaching and learning. It covers important topics like learning theories; teaching methods; motivation; cognitive, emotional, and moral development; and parent-child relationships etc.
Educational psychology deals with the Nature and Development of the Personality of an individual. It studies individual difference: Every individual differs from every other individual. It studies the nature Intelligence and its measurement. It provides Guidance and Counseling.
01. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Definitions by various psychologists
Charles E. Skinner: “Educational Psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning.”
Crow and Crow: “Educational psychology describes and explains the learning and teaching.”
Trow : “Educational Psychology is the study of psychological aspects of educational situations.”
Stephen: “Educational Psychology is the systematic study of the educational growth and development of a child.”
E.A. Peel, “Educational Psychology is the science of Education.”
Walter B. Kolesnik : “Educational Psychology is the study of those facts and principles of psychology which help to explain and improve the process of education.”
Anderson : “Educational Psychology is a subject to be studied, an area or field of knowledge, a set of application of laws and principles from a wide field of knowledge to a social process a set of tools and techniques, and a field of research.
Judd: “Educational Psychology is the science which explains the changes that take place in the individuals as they pass through the various stages of development.”
Thus educational psychology is a behavioral science with two main references– human behavior and education.
two tasks of educational psychology.
a. Personal development b. intellectual development.
The study of the mind
The study of the child development and behavior physically and psychologically
A psychologist who studied physical development of the child and the psychological
behavior of the child and created theories.